@article { melo06, abstract = {This work proposes a real-time virtual human multimodal expression model. Five modalities explore the affordances of the body: deterministic, non-deterministic, gesticulation, facial, and vocal expression. Deterministic expression is keyframe body animation. Non- deterministic expression is robotics-based procedural body animation. Vocal expression is voice synthesis, through Festival, and parameterization, through SABLE. Facial expression is lip-synch and emotion expression through a parametric muscle-based face model. Inspired by psycholinguistics, gesticulation expression is unconventional, idiosyncratic, and unconscious hand gestures animation described as sequences of Portuguese Sign Language hand shapes, positions and orientations. Inspired by the arts, one modality goes beyond the body to explore the affordances of the environment and express emotions through camera, lights, and music. To control multimodal expression, this work proposes a high-level integrated synchronized markup language —expressive markup language. Finally, three studies, involving a total of 197 subjects, evaluated the model in storytelling contexts and produced promising results.}, journal = {Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds}, pages = {239–248}, title = {Multimodal expression in virtual humans}, volume = {17}, year = {2006}, author = {Celso de Melo and Ana Paiva} }