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Empathy Questionnaire

To measure children’s perceptions of the robot’s empathic capacities the questionnaire by Davis (1983) in an adapted form was used. Instead of asking about children’s perceptions of their own empathic capacities they are asked to gauge the robot’s empathy. The questions vary slightly between the two scenarios; as in the map reading scenario the children do not have any experience with the robot’s behavior towards others. Answers to each question range from “this does not describe Nao/Emys at all” to “this describes Nao/Emys very well” using a Likert scale with 1-5 points.

Map reading scenario

The following statements were used in Scenario One with the map reading application:

1 Nao/Emys can have tender and concerned feelings for people less fortunate than himself.
2 Sometimes Nao/Emys found it difficult to see things from my point of view.
3 Sometimes Nao/Emys did not feel sorry for me when I was having problems.
4 Nao/Emys tries to look at all sides of an issue before he makes a decision.
5 If Nao/Emys would see someone being bothered or hurt, he would probably feel protective towards them.
6 Nao/Emys sometimes tried to understand me better by imagining how things look from my perspective.
7 Nao/Emys is not disturbed when I or someone else am upset.
8 When Nao/Emys is sure he is right about something, he doesn’t waste much time listening to my arguments or point of view.
9 If Nao/Emys would see someone being treated unfairly, he wouldn’t feel much pity for them.
10 Nao/Emys is often quite touched by things that he sees happening.
11 Nao/Emys believes that there are two sides to every question and tries to look at them both.
12 I would describe Nao/Emys as a pretty soft-hearted robot.
13 If Nao/Emys were upset, he would try to “put himself in my shoes” for a while to understand the situation.
14 Before telling me I have done something wrong, Nao/Emys tries to imagine how he would feel if he was in my place.

Sustainable development scenario

The following statements were used with Scenario Two, The Sustainable development application:

1 Nao/Emys often had tender, concerned feelings for people less fortunate than himself.
2 Sometimes Nao/Emys found it difficult to see things from someone else’s point of view.
3 Sometimes Nao/Emys did not feel sorry for other people when they were having problems.
4 Nao/Emys tried to look at everybody’s side of a disagreement before making a decision.
5 When Nao/Emys saw someone being taken advantage of, he felt kind of protective towards them
6 Nao/Emys sometimes tried to understand me better by imagining how things look from my perspective
7 Other people’s misfortunes do not usually disturb Nao/Emys a great deal
8 If Nao/Emys was sure about something, he didn’t waste much time listening to other people’s arguments.
9 When Nao/Emys saw someone being treated unfairly, he didn’t feel very much pity for them
10 Nao/Emys is often quite touched by things that he sees happening
11 Nao/Emys believes that there are two sides to every question and tries to look at them both.
12 I would describe Nao/Emys as a pretty soft-hearted robot.
13 When Nao/Emys is upset at someone, he usually tries to “put itself in the others’ shoes” for a while.
14 Before criticizing somebody, Nao/Emys tries to imagine how it would feel if it was in their place.

 

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