Social Dilemma.

A Social Dilemma is a situation in which individual rationality can be at conflict with social rationality.

Individual rationality is a concept commonly used in game theory and economics, which explains and predicts human behaviour in terms of the attempts of an individual to maximize his expected utility, that is to say, the expected satisfaction according to his own particular preferences.

Conversely, social rationality measures rationality exerted in the name of the whole group of individuals, for instance, a factory opting for not polluting a waterway (the common good), despite having to pay more for waste disposal (diminishing thus the company profits).

Because social dilemmas are scenarios of conflict between individual and social rationality, they are suitable to analyse the behaviour and decision processes of real persons as well of socially aware artificial intelligent agents.